Biographical Index of Missionaries Sandwich Islands/Hawaii
Biographies are developed by PHC volunteers and staff from original research and from various published sources. This list is constantly being updated. Corrections and additional materials, such as photos or drawings will be made from time to time. There also is a missionary biographical listing being prepared for this web site. Eventually, there will be a master alphabetic combined index of ministers and missionaries to aid in searches. Thanks for your patience. Please email additional information or pictures to the PHC.
Sources for information regarding mission personnel is given in italics. Major sources are the following:
- Arnold, Frank L., Long Road to Obsolescence: A North American Mission to Brazil. (Philadelphia: Xlibris, 2008)
- Brown, Arthur Judson, One Hundred Years. (New York: Fleming H. Revell Co., 1936)
- Brown, George Thompson, Earthern Vessels & Transcendent Power: American Presbyterians in China, 1837-1952. (Maryknoll, NY.: Orbis Books, 1997)
- Cogswell, James A., No Turning Back: A History of American Presbyterian Involvement in Sub-Saharan Africa, 1833-2000. (Philadelphia: Xlibris, 2007)
- Latourette, Kenneth Scott, A History of the Expansion of Christianity, Vol. V- VI. (New York, London: Harper & Brothers, 1944)
- Moffett, Samuel Hugh, A History of Christianity in Asia, Vol. II: 1500-1900. (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 2003)
- Nevin, Alfred, Encyclopedia of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America. 1884.
- Presbyterian Church U.S.A. General Assembly Minutes, 1789-1861, various volumes.
- Scott, Rev. E.C., Ministerial Directory of the Presbyterian Church, U.S., 1861-1941.
- Sweet, William Warren, The Story of Religion in America (New York & London, Harper & Brothers Publishers, 1939)
- Thompson, Ernest Trice, Presbyterians in the South, Volume One, 1607-1861. (Richmond, VA: John Knox Press, 1963)
Some of the Early Presbyterian Missionaries to the Sandwich Islands/Hawaii
The early missionaries to Hawaii (or Sandwich) Islands were sent by the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, a Congregational and Presbyterian organization headquartered in Boston. Following are some of the Presbyterian missionaries sent:
STEWART, Rev. & Mrs. Charles Samuel (Harriet Bradford Tiffany)
(October 16, 1795 - December 14, 1870) & (June 24, 1798 - September 6, 1830)
Born in Flemington, New jersey, Charles S. Stewart graduated from Princeton College in 1815 and from Princeton Theological Seminary in 1821. Rev. Charles S. Stewart and his wife (at right, photo c. 1863 and his wife's painting c. 1822 ), who were married on June 22, 1822, were sent out by the American Board of Commissioners of Foreign Missions, departing in November 1822, along with black missionary and companion Betsey Stockton. Working at the mission at Lahaina on Maui, the Stewarts served until 1825, when they returned to the U.S. because of Mrs. Stewart's health. A Presbyterian, Reverend Stewart became a chaplain in the United States Navy and left from Chesapeake on February 13, 1829, on the frigate Guerriere which was to relieve the Vincennes at the Pacific station. In 1835, he married his second wife, Sarah A. Skillman. Rev. Stewart also was the author of several books on travel. He died on December 14, 1870, at Cooperstown, N.Y.
(c. 1798 – October 24, 1865)
Born in slavery about 1798, Betsey was given by her owner Robert Stockton his daughter upon her marriage to Reverend Ashbel Green, president of the College of New Jersey (now Princeton University). In 1817, Betsey Stockton was admitted as a member of the First Presbyterian Church in Princeton, New Jersey, and formally freed at that time. She learned from reading in the Green's library, as well as being home schooled by Dr. Green, and expressed a desire to go as a missionary to Africa. Dr. Green and her Sabbath school teacher wrote letters of recommendation to the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. African-American Betsey Stockton (at right) became the first single woman to serve as a foreign missionary, when she traveled with a mission group comprised of men and women from the Presbyterian and Congregational churches on a sailing ship to the Sandwich Islands (now known as Hawaii). Sent out by the American Board of Commissioners of Foreign Missions on November 22, 1822, Betsey Stockton's contract specified that she was to share in the mission's primary work, as well as to help as a companion to one of the couples, Rev. and Mrs. Charles S. Stewart, who were expecting a child. The Stewarts and Stockton arrived in Hawaii in early Spring 1823 on Maui. Betsey Stockton taught in a school for Hawaiian natives run by the mission, as well as training native teachers. Because of Mrs. Stewart's health, Stockton and the Stewarts returned to the U.S. in 1825 where she stayed as a paid household employee until 1830. Betsey briefly taught at an infant school in Philadelphia and established a school for Indians at Grape Island, Canada. She returned to Princeton in 1835 and helped found Princeton's First Presbyterian Church of Color, and its Sabbath School. In 1848, the church was renamed the Witherspoon Street Church. Betsey Stockton taught in its school for blacks until her death on October 24, 1865.
GULICK, Rev. Peter Johnson
(March 12, 1797 - December 8, 1877)
Born Freehold, NJ Mar. 12, 1797. Graduated College of New Jersey 1825, Princeton Seminary 1827. Licensed and ordained by Presbytery of New Brunswick Oct. 3, 1827. On Nov. 3, 1827 embarked with his wife, Fanny, for the Hawaiian Mission under commission of ABCFM, where he served on various islands until his move to Japan in June 1874. He served at Waimea on Kauai from 1828 - 1835, Koloa up to 1843, Kaluaaha up to 1847, Waialua up to 1857, and Honolulu up to 1874. He lived in Kobe, Japan, where he spent his last years in home of his son, where he died on Dec. 8, 1877. Five of his children were missionaries of the ABCFM in Spain, China and Japan; a sixth child became an agent of the American Bible Society in Japan. Nevin. Shown at right are Peter and Fanny Gulick, Presbyterian missionaries to Hawaii. His wife, Fanny, was born on April 16, 1798, married on September 5, 1827, and died on May 24, 1883. The Gulicks had eight children.