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Biographical Index of Missionaries — Native Americans

Biographies are developed by PHC volunteers and staff from original research and from various published sources. This list is constantly being updated. Corrections and additional materials, such as photos or drawings will be made from time to time. There also is a missionary biographical listing being prepared for this web site. During 2011, there will be a master alphabetic combined index of ministers and missionaries to aid in searches. Thanks for your patience. Please email additional information or pictures to the PHC.

   Sources for information regarding mission personnel is given in italics. Major sources are the following:
- Arnold, Frank L., Long Road to Obsolescence: A North American Mission to Brazil. (Philadelphia: Xlibris, 2008)
- Brown, Arthur Judson, One Hundred Years. (New York: Fleming H. Revell Co., 1936)
- Brown, George Thompson, Earthern Vessels & Transcendent Power: American Presbyterians in China, 1837-1952. (Maryknoll, NY.: Orbis Books, 1997)
- Cogswell, James A., No Turning Back: A History of American Presbyterian Involvement in Sub-Saharan Africa, 1833-2000. (Philadelphia: Xlibris, 2007)
- Latourette, Kenneth Scott, A History of the Expansion of Christianity, Vol. V- VI. (New York, London: Harper & Brothers, 1944)
- Moffett, Samuel Hugh, A History of Christianity in Asia, Vol. II: 1500-1900. (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 2003)
- Nevin, Alfred, Encyclopedia of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America. 1884.
- Presbyterian Church U.S.A. General Assembly Minutes, 1789-1861, various volumes.
- Scott, Rev. E.C., Ministerial Directory of the Presbyterian Church, U.S., 1861-1941.
- Sweet, William Warren, The Story of Religion in America (New York & London, Harper & Brothers Publishers, 1939)
- Thompson, Ernest Trice, Presbyterians in the South, Volume One, 1607-1861. (Richmond, VA: John Knox Press, 1963)

Some of the Early Presbyterian Missionaries to Indian (Native American) Nations
Throughout this period, work among Native American (then called Indian) nations was considered foreign missions. Many of the missionaries in “Indian territory” had begun their work prior to the formation of the General Assembly in 1789. “Some of the noblest spirits that modern Christianity has produced are to be found among the early American missionaries to the Indians.” After the Revolutionary War, many Loyalists took refuge with Indian tribes, intermarrying with Native Americans. In 1861, the ten Native American ministers in Indian Territory, Oklahoma were taken under the care of the PCUS (Southern) Executive Committee of Foreign Missions. In 1893, work among other Native Americans was transferred to the PCUSA Board of Home Missions. Also, some missionaries were appointed by presbyteries for work among African-Americans; however, this was usually done along with pioneer evangelistic work among the white population and was related to local churches and not considered "foreign missions."

HORTON, Azariah
(March 20, 1715 - March 27, 1777).
SHINNECOCK. Long Island, NY. Mar. 20, 1715. Graduated Yale 1735. Married Eunice Foster. Ordained by Presbytery of New York and supported by Scottish Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge to be missionary among Shinnecock Indians on Long Island, August 1741 — first American Presbyterian missionary among Indians. Within 3 years, baptized 45 adults and 44 children. In 1751 became first pastor of Presbyterian Church of South Hanover in Bottle Hill, now Madison, NJ. Served there until his retirement in 1776. In 1776 served as pastor to Washington’s Revolutionary Army quartered in Bottle Hill, where he contracted smallpox and died in his son’s home in Chatham, NJ, Mar. 27, 1777. He did much to prepare the way for the ministry of David Brainerd. Minutes of the Synod of New York and Philadelphia, May 26, 1742. A.J. Brown, 160.

BRAINERD, David
(April 20, 1718 - October 9, 1747).
Perhaps the best known of all the Indian missionaries. Born in Haddam, CT Apr. 20, 1718. Convert of the Great Awakening, entered Yale College in 1739 to prepare for the ministry. Appointed by the Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge as a Presbyterian missionary to the Indians in Massachusetts in 1742. In 1843 began his work among Indians at Kaunaumeck, near Stockbridge, Mass. Received ordination by New Side Presbytery in 1744. For a time, lived in a wigwam with the Indians, subsisting on Indian fare. His successful mission in New Jersey, begun in 1745, was cut short by his death from tuberculosis on Oct. 9, 1747. Died at the home of Jonathan Edwards, to whose daughter Jerusha he was engaged to be married. Soon after his death, Jonathan Edwards published an account of Brainerd’s life together with his diary, which proved a tremendous stimulus in promoting the cause of missions. His work was carried on by his brother John. Thompson, 190. Minutes of the Synod of New York and Philadelphia, May 20-29, 1767. Nevin. Sweet, 235f. A.J. Brown, 160-164.

BRAINERD, John
(1746 - March 18, 1781)
Born in Haddam, CT. Graduated Yale 1746. Appointed in 1747 to take up his brother David’s work as a missionary among the Indians. Retired from the Society’s service in 1755, and took charge of the congregation in Newark, NJ. In 1777 moved to Deerfield and preached there until his death, Mar. 18, 1781. Nevin.

EDWARDS, Rev. Jonathan
(October 5, 1703 - March 22, 1758)
HOUSATONIC. Born Windsor, Conn. Oct. 5, 1703. Graduated Yale College 1720. Served New York congregation 1722-1726, then Northampton, Mass. Church 1727-1750. Instrumental in appointment of Azariah Horton and David Brainerd to missionary service; also in initiating the Great Awakening. Because of his strict Calvinist views, released from his charge by an ecclesiastical council, June 22, 1750. In August 1751, became missionary to the Housatonic Indians at Stockbridge, where he continued for six years. In Jan. 1758, he reluctantly accepted the office of President of the College of New Jersey. Inoculation for smallpox was cause of his death, Mar. 22, 1758. His written works are regarded as landmarks in Christian thought. Nevin.

DUFFIELD, George
(October 7, 1732 - February 2, 1790)
DELAWARE. Born Lancaster Co., PA Oct. 7, 1732. Graduated Princeton 1752. Ordained September 1761. Took charge of Presbyterian churches in frontier towns in Pennsylvania. In 1766 made missionary tour through valleys of Pennsylvania, Maryland and Virginia. Served as missionary to the Delaware Indian Nation. Served as chaplain during the Revolution. Took active part in organization of Presbyterian General Assembly after the Revolution. Chosen as first stated clerk of the General Assembly, a position he held until his death in Philadelphia February 2, 1790. Minutes of the Synod of New York and Philadelphia, May 20-29, 1767.

BEATTY, Charles
(1712 - August 13, 1773)
DELAWARE. Born in County Antrim, Ireland. His father died when he was a child; he came to Philadelphia in care of his uncle Charles Clinton in 1729. Received classical education in Ireland, then studied at Log College in New Jersey. Licensed by Presbytery of New Brunswick Oct. 13, 1742, ordained Dec. 14. Synod of New York sent him to Virginia and North Carolina in 1754. In 1766, Synod appointed him missionary to the frontier, where he became missionary to the Delaware Nation, 1766-1773. Sailed for West Indies but died in Barbados Aug. 13, 1773. Minutes of the Synod of New York and Philadelphia, May 20-29, 1767. Nevin.

SPENCER, Rev. Elihu, D.D.
(February 12, 1721 - December 27, 1784)
Born at East Haddam CT, Feb. 12, 1721. Graduated Yale College in Sept. 1746. On recommendation of David Brainerd and Jonathan Edwards, undertook mission among the Indians of the Six Nations, studying the language of the Indian tribes. Ordained to this ministry in Boston, Sept. 1748. However, after two years installed as pastor of Presbyterian Church in Elizabethtown, NJ, Feb. 7, 1750. Later appointed to chaplaincy of New York troops in French-Indian War. Then labored in congregations in New Jersey, North Carolina, and Delaware. Died Dec. 27, 1784. Nevin.

MARTIN, Rev. John
(c.1736 - ? )
CHEROKEE. Licensed by Presbytery of Hanover Aug. 25, 1756. Ordained June 9, 1757, first Presbyterian minister ordained in Virginia. Engaged in Indian Mission, Jan. 25, 1758. However the enterprise was later abandoned, because Cherokees joined the French on the outbreak of French and Indian War. He later settled in South Carolina. Nevin.

RICHARDSON, Rev. William
(c. 1738 - c.1763)
CHEROKEE. Born in Egremont, England. Coming to America, became resident in family of Rev. Samuel Davies. Licensed by Presbytery of Hanover Jan. 1758, ordained July 1758 as missionary to Cherokee towns in North Carolina. Mission abandoned on outbreak of French-Indian War. He later settled in South Carolina. Nevin.

KIRKLAND, Rev. Samuel
(1741 - 1808)
SENECA. Born in Norwich, CT. Student at College of New Jersey. After leaving college (1765), he went on a missionary expedition to the Seneca tribe of Indians. After a year he returned to his home in Norwich, CT, bringing one of the Seneca chiefs with him. He was ordained and returned to his mission, where he spent more than 40 years as a missionary, first to the Senecas and later to the Oneida and Tuscarora people. During Revolutionary War, became advisor and ambassador for Iroquois, helping to negotiate treaties between Indians and whites. In a letter of George Washington to Congress in 1775, Washington recognized the favorable influence which this mission had upon the country during the Revolution. Kirkland was founder in 1793 of Hamilton-Oneida Academy (later Hamilton College). Died in Clinton, NY in 1808. Kirkland, NY, named after him. Nevin. Sweet, 236f.

ALEXANDER, Rev. Caleb
(July 22, 1755 - April 12, 1828)
Born Northfield, Mass. July 22, 1755. Graduated Yale 1777, Brown University 1789. Licensed in 1778, became pastor in New Marlborough 1781, then Mendon, Mass. 1786. In 1801, appointed by the Massachusetts Missionary Society to visit the churches and Indians in western part of New York. Later served churches in New York. Engaged in founding the Theological Seminary at Auburn. Died Apr. 12, 1828. Nevin.

BADGER, Rev. Joseph
(February 28, 1757 - April 5, 1846)
“The great missionary of the Western Reserve, and one of the pioneers to regions further west.” Born in Wilbraham, Mass., Feb. 28, 1757. After serving in the revolutionary army for several years, graduated Yale 1783. Served churches in Connecticut until 1800, then accepted commission of Connecticut Missionary Society to labor as missionary in Western Reserve of Ohio. In 1806 accepted a commission from the Western Missionary Society in Pittsburg, PA as missionary to the Indians in the region of Sandusky, OH, where he served for four years. After resigning this commission, moved to Ashtabula, OH, where he served, supported in part by Massachusetts Missionary Society. During War of 1812, appointed brigade chaplain. In 1826, placed on pension roll of the War Department as a soldier of the Revolution. Died Apr. 5, 1846 at age 90. Nevin.

BULLEN, Rev. Joseph
(c.1753 - March 26, 1825)
CHICKASAW. Native of Worcester County, Mass. Educated at Yale College. First charge was in Windham Co., Vermont, where he served about 20 years. Sent by New York Missionary Society in 1798 to establish a mission among the Chickasaw Indians of “West Georgia.” First of Presbyterian missions to the Indians in Southern United States. Work abandoned in 1803 because of bad influence of other white men. Became one of pioneer ministers in Mississippi Territory until his death Mar. 26, 1825. Thompson, 170, 192-194. Nevin.

ANDERSON, Dr. John, D.D.
(April 10, 1767 - January 5, 1835)
WYANDOTTE. Born in Guilford County, NC April 10, 1767. Licensed by Presbytery of Orange, NC, in 1791, and shortly afterward ordained as an evangelist. Labored in North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Kentucky, Ohio, Indiana, Pennsylvania. Member of Board of Trustees of Western Missionary Society, made several tours to the Wyandotte Indians. Instrumental in founding mission to the Maumee. Became supporter of United Foreign Missionary Society, and subsequently of the ABCFM into which it was merged. Instrumental in forming General Assembly’s Board of Foreign Missions in 1831. Died Jan. 5, 1835. Nevin.

SWIFT, Rev. Elisha
(August 12, 1792 - 1865)
MAUMEE. Born in Williamstown, Mass. Aug. 12, 1792. Received his education at Williams College under missionary influence flowing from the Haystack Prayer Meeting in 1807. Accepted for missionary appointment by ABCFM Sept. 1817. Participated in establishing the Indian mission at Maumee. Became pastor of 2nd Presbyterian Church in Pittsburgh, but resigned to devote all his energy to cause of mission. Persuaded Presbyterians to form Western Foreign Missionary Society in 1831, for which he became first Executive Secretary 1831-1835. He was “the father and founder of Presbyterian foreign mission work.” A.J. Brown, 26.

BLACKBURN, Rev. Gideon
(August 27, 1772 - August 23, 1838)
CHEROKEE. Born in Augusta County, VA, Aug. 27, 1772. In boyhood his parents moved to Tennessee. Licensed to preach by Presbytery of Abingdon, 1792. Established New Providence Church, Maryville, TN. Preached extensively in the region, organizing several churches. In 1804 began work among Cherokees in Chickamauga, TN, first successful work among Indians in the South. Concerned chiefly with establishing schools among the Cherokees. Work taken over by ABCFM in 1817. In 1811 settled in Franklin, TN, took charge of Harpeth Academy, and established churches at several neighboring places. In 1823 became pastor of Presbyterian Church in Louisville, KY. Was president of Centre College, Danville, KY 1827-1830. Later established Illinois and Blackburn Colleges. Helped establish anti-slavery society of Illinois in 1837. Died Aug. 23, 1838. Thompson, 154, 174, 193-195, 207, 219, 296, 337, 338, 355, 371. Nevin.

KINGSBURY, Rev. Cyrus
(November 22, 1786 - June 27, 1870)
CHEROKEE, CHOCTAW. Born in Alstead, NH, Nov. 22, 1786. Graduated Brown University 1812, Andover Seminary 1815. Appointed missionary to the Indians by ABCFM in 1816. In 1817 opened Brainerd Mission among Cherokees, near Chattanooga. In 1818 opened Eliot Mission among Choctaws in central Mississippi. Work among Choctaws became very successful and was transferred to Presbyterian Board (BFM) in 1859. Transferred to Presbyterian Church U.S. after Civil War. Lame from his youth, Choctaws called him “Limping Wolf.” Kingsbury labored among Indians for more than 50 years. Died June 27, 1870. Thompson, 195-197, 446-448. Scott, 377.

ALDEN, Rev. Timothy
(August 28, 1771 -July 5, 1839)
SENECA, MUNSEE. Boly 5, rn at Yarmouth, Mass., Aug. 28, 1771. Of Puritan ancestry. Graduated Harvard 1794. After teaching and preaching in Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and New York, inaugurated President and Professor of Allegheny College, Meadville, PA. Became a member of Presbytery of Erie, April 2, 1816. For many successive years labored among the Seneca and Munsee Indians, who had reservations in Northwestern Pennsylvania and southwestern New York. Died July 5, 1839. Nevin.

STUART, Rev. Thomas C.
( - 1882)
CREEK, CHICKASAW. Licensed by South Carolina Presbytery Apr. 3, 1819. Ordained by Missionary Society of South Carolina and Georgia as missionary to Creeks and Chickasaws, 1820. Arrived at place of service in January 1821, accompanied by Rev. David Humphries, a mechanic named Vernon and a farmer named Pickens. Humphries “concluded that he was not called to preach to the Indian.” Established Monroe Mission in North Mississippi, in honor of the U.S. President. A farm was opened and a school established. Monroe Church organized June 3 1823, six miles south of Pontotoc, MS. In 1827 mission placed under the care of ABCFM. Stuart became superintendent of all stations among the Chickasaws. After Indians were removed to Indian Territory west of the Mississippi in 1837, Monroe Station was abandoned. “Father Stuart” remained to minister to whites in Pontotoc in northern Mississippi. Died in Tupelo in 1882, buried in Pontotoc near the place where he labored among the Chickasaw people. “He has been termed the tenderest and gentlest spirit that touched and transformed the Indians of the Southwest.” Thompson, 198-199, 202. Scott, 694.

BLAIR, William Cochran
(March 16, 1791 - February 13, 1873)
CHICKASAW. Born Bourbon Co., KY, Mar. 16, 1791. Married Susan Mueller, 1818. Princeton Seminary, 1818-1821. Missionary to Chickasaw Indians in West Tennessee, 1822-1828, appointed by Missionary Society of the Synods of South Carolina and Georgia. Established Martyn Mission Station at a place called “Pigeon Roost” in Marshall County. Dismissed to Presbytery of West Tennessee, he established first church in Memphis, 1828. Missionary to Negroes near Natchez, MS, 1832-1840. Served churches in Texas, 1841-1873. Died Lavaca, Texas, on Feb. 13, 1873. Thompson, 199,428,431. Scott, 61. Nevin.

WILSON, Rev. Hugh
(March 16, 1794 - March 8, 1868)
CHOCTAW, CHICKASAW. Born near Statesville, NC, Mar. 16, 1794. Married Ethalinda Hall of Princeton, NJ July 12, 1822. College of New Jersey BA 1819, MA 1822; Princeton Seminary, 1822. Missionary to Choctaw Indians in Georgia 1823-1826; Chickasaw Indians in Mississippi and Alabama, 1826-1832. Commissioned by Synod of Mississippi as missionary to Texas, 1837-68. Organized first Presbyterian church in Texas at St. Augustine in 1838. Died Mar. 8, 1868. Thompson, 178,199,428. Scott, 781.

HOLMES, Rev. James
CHICKASAW. From Pennsylvania. Joined Monroe Mission to Chickasaws in 1824, taking over work at Pigeon Roost. Later ordained and became Doctor of Divinity, teaching at Covington, TN.

FERRY, Rev. Ashbel Green Fairchild, D.D.
(September 8, 1795 - December 30, 1867)
MACKINAW. Born in Granby, Mass., Sept. 8, 1795. Graduated Union College 1820; attended New Brunswick Theological Seminary. Licensed and ordained by New York Presbytery in 1832. Appointed by United Foreign Missionary Society as missionary to the Indians of the northwest, which led to establishment of Mackinaw Mission. Moved to Grand Haven in 1834 where he established a church in a log hut. Died Dec. 30, 1867. Father of T.W. Ferry, U.S. Senator from Michigan. Nevin.

WILLIAMSON, Rev. Thomas Smith, M.D.
(March 6, 1800 - June 24, 1879)
DAKOTA. Born in Union District, SC, Mar. 6, 1800. Family moved to Kentucky, then Ohio. Received A.B. degree from Jefferson College, 1819. Studied medicine in Philadelphia and New Haven, received M.D. from Yale in 1824. Built up large practice in Ripley, OH. In August 1832, entered Lane Seminary. Placed himself under care of ABCFM to labor in West. In early 1835, went West with family, settled at Fort Snelling, where he organized the first Presbyterian Church within present Minnesota. Traveled 200 miles further West to Lac-qui-Parle, where he began work with Dakota Indians. Practicing medicine, won respect of Indians, traders and Government officers. “He was untiring in his efforts to secure the Indians their rights, involving a large correspondence with Indian Commissioners, with leading Senators and Representatives, and made several trips to Washington.” He acquired the Dakota language, prepared a Dakota reader, and translated part of Bible. In 1846, received request from Kaposia band and removed there. In 1852, the Indians having sold their land, he removed to Pajutazee, where he labored until 1862. On Aug. 18, when terrible “outbreak” occurred [Indian uprising?], he sent his family away. Christian Indians rallied around him, enabling him to escape during the night. He completed his translation of the Bible into Dakota language in 1878; “very few [Indian] languages have as good a translation of the Bible.” Died June 24, 1879. His daughter Nancy Jane and granddaughter Nancy Hunter Lindsay continued his work as missionaries to the Dakota Indians. Nevin.

WILLIAMSON, Jane Smith
(March 8, 1803 - March 24, 1895)
DAKOTA. Born at Fair Forest, SC, Mar. 8, 1803. Daughter of a Presbyterian minister and sister of Rev. Thomas Smith Williamson. Family moved to Ohio in 1804. Largely self-educated, she taught in a community school with both white and black students. When her brother went as a missionary to the Dakota Indians in 1835, she wanted to go with him, but felt she must remain at home to care for her aged father. After her father’s death she joined her brother in 1843, first in Lac-qui-Parle, then Kaposia, then Pajutazee. The Dakotas called her “Dowan Dootanin,” meaning “Red Song Woman.” She taught them as she had her former white and black students. After the “great outbreak” in 1862, she remained with her brother until his death in 1879. She continued her work with the Dakotas until her death Mar. 24, 1895, the only survivor of the first missionaries to the Dakota nation. Nevin.

WHITMAN, Dr. Marcus & Mrs. Narcissa Prentiss
(September 4, 1802 - November 29, 1847) & (1808 - November 29, 1847)
CAYUSE. Dr. Marcus Whitman was born in Rushville, NY, Sept. 4, 1802. Marcus and Marcissa were married in Presbyterian Church of Angelica, NY, on Feb. 18, 1836. The Whitmans and the Spauldings, appointed by ABCFM in 1836, set out for missionary work among Indians in Oregon. Narcissa Whitman and Eliza Spalding were first female U.S. citizens to travel the length of what would become known as the Oregon Trail. In 1842, Whitmans established mission among Cayuse Indians at Waiilatpui, near present-day Walla Walla, doing medical and industrial work. Spaldings opened Lapwai station and did evangelistic work among the Nez Perce Indians. Later in 1842, Whitman took perilous journey back to Washington, DC to tell government Oregon would be lost to British unless prompt action was taken; he ten led company of 121 covered wagons from St. Louis to Oregon, and Oregon was saved for U.S. After 11 years of working with the Cayuse Indians, on Nov. 29, 1847, a band of over 60 Cayuse attacked the Whitman’s mission and killed Marcus and Narcissa Whitman and several others. The killings ended Protestant missions in the Oregon Territory and led to war against the Cayuse by a volunteer militia. In 1897 on 50th anniversary of the Whitmans’ deaths, memorial monument erected on hill overlooking Walla Walla Valley. Cheryl Harness, The Tragic Tale of Narcissa Whitman, Washington, D.C., National Geographic Society, 2006. A.J. Brown, 166-170.

SPALDING, Rev. Henry Harmon & Mrs. Eliza Hart
(1802 - August 3, 1874) & (1806 - 1850)
NEZ PERCE. The Spauldings and the Whitmans, appointed by ABCFM in 1836, set out for missionary work among Indians in Oregon. Narcissa Whitman and Eliza Spalding were first female U.S. citizens to travel the length of what would become known as the Oregon Trail. In 1842, Whitmans established mission among Cayuse Indians at Waiilatpui, near present-day Walla Walla, doing medical and industrial work. The Spaldings opened Lapwai station and did evangelistic work among the Nez Perce Indians. Rev. Henry Harmon Spalding (shown right) had been fruitful in his work; he baptized more than 900 converts and founded nine churches, and improved educational and economic conditions among the Nez Perce. He died at Lapwai on August 3, 1874. Cheryl Harness, The Tragic Tale of Narcissa Whitman, Washington, D.C., National Geographic Society, 2006. A.J. Brown, 166-170.

LOUGHRIDGE, Rev. Robert McGill
(December 24, 1809 - July 8, 1900)
CREEK. Born Dec. 24, 1809 in Lawrenceville, SC. Graduated Miami University, OH 1837. Attended Princeton Seminary for one year, but after death of his father, returned home and continued theological education under his pastor, Rev. John H. Gray for two years. Licensed to preach by presbytery of Tuscaloosa, AL on Apr. 9, 1941. Appointed by ABCFM as missionary to Creek Indians, arriving in Indian territory on Dec. 6, 1941. After laying plans for work, returned to be ordained as Presbyterian minister October 1842. In 1843 reentered Indian Territory and established Koweta Mission near present-day Coweta, OK. First wife died in 1845, second wife in 1850. In 1850 established Tullahassee Mission among Seminole Indians. Became skilled in the Creek language and translated portions of Bible, hymns and catechisms. With outbreak of Civil War in 1861, missions among the five nations (Creeks, Choctaws, Cherokees, Seminoles and Chickasaws) were turned over by ABCFM to the Presbyterian BFM, later to Southern Presbyterian Executive Committee of Foreign Missions, and in 1889 to PCUS Executive Committee of Home Missions.. The government had removed the tribes from their ancestral homes in Alabama, Florida, Georgia and Mississippi, and settled them in Indian Territory. Loughridge moved to Texas on July 17, 1862 and for 18 years preached in churches in various parts of Texas. Returned to Indian Territory in 1881 and reopened Tullahassee Mission. In 1890 published first dictionary of the Creek language. Died July 8, 1900 in Waco, TX. GA Minutes. A.J. Brown, 165.

BALENTINE, Rev. Hamilton
(1817 - February 21, 1876)
CREEK, CHOCTAW, CHICKASAW, CHEROKEE. Born in Pennsylvania. Appointed by BFM in 1848, served as missionary among Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws and Cherokees for 28 years. Married Nancy Ann Hoyt, daughter of Dr. Milo Hoyt, also a missionary to Indians. Died near Tahlequah, Oklahoma, on Feb. 21, 1876. Buried in Worcester Missionary Cemetery near Park Hill, OK. GA Minutes 1848.

STARK, Rev. Oliver Porter
(August 8, 1823 - March 2, 1884).
CHOCTAW. Born in Goshen, NY, Aug. 8, 1823. College of New Jersey, 1843; Princeton Seminary, 1844. Ordained by Indian Presbytery 1851. Missionary to Choctaw Nation, 1849-1866. Principal of Lamar Feminine Seminary, Paris, TX 1866-1879. Superintendent of Spence Academy, Choctaw Nation, 1881-1884. Died in Nelson, Indian Territory, March 2, 1884. Scott, p. 681.

REID, Rev. Alexander
(April 28, 1818 - July 30, 1890).
Born in Kirkmichael, Scotland, April 28, 1818. College of New Jersey, 1845; Princeton Seminary, 1845-1849. Ordained by Presbytery of New York, May 13, 1849. Joined Choctaw Mission 1849-1869; superintendent of Spencer Academy, 1849-1861. After residence in Princeton and New York, rejoined Choctaw Mission 1880-1882. Died in Boston, Mass. July 30, 1890. Scott, p. 601.

Additional Missionaries Mission/Tribe Comments
DOUGHERTY, Rev. & Mrs. Peter Served Chippewa & Ottawa Mission, Grand Traverse Bay, Michigan, 1838-1861. “Contended with whiskey traders and Catholic priest.”
PORTER, Mr. Andrew Teacher Chippewa & Ottawa Mission Arrived in 1848. Resigned in 1850.
BRADLEY, M/M H. Chippewa & Ottawa Mission “Gave up his post in 1847.”
LIMBER, Rev. J. Creek Mission Arrived in 1844. Withdrew from mission in 1846.
LILLEY, Mr. & Mrs. Teachers in Creek & Seminole Mission.  
EAKINS, Rev. David W. Creek & Seminole Mission Sent in 1848. Resigned in 1850.
THOMPSON, Miss Nancy Creek & Seminole Mission  
ROBERTSON, W.S. Teacher Creek & Seminole Mission Sent in 1850.
JUNKIN, Rev. & Mrs. Joseph B. Creek & Seminole Mission  
BOWEN, Miss Mary Creek & Seminole Mission  


McKINNEY, Rev. and Mrs. E. Began new mission at Bellevue on Missouri near Council Bluffs in 1847. Transferred from Creek Mission to be Superintendent of Academy among the Choctaws. Assisted in treating the sick during cholera epidemic in 1849.
RAMSEY, Rev. & Mrs. J. Ross. Became Superintendent of Spencer Academy in Choctaw Mission 1846. Mrs. Ramsey died 1850.
MORRISON, Miss E.J. Teacher in Choctaw Mission.
GARDNER, Mr. & Mrs. H.C. “ . Resigned in 1850.
BISSELL, Mr. L., farmer. “ . “
LATHROP, Mr. & Mrs. J. Mechanic in Choctaw Mission.
McLURE, Mr. & Mrs. J. Steward “
BETZ, Mr. J.S. Carpenter “
GREGORY, Rev. & Mrs. Carper R. “
GRAHAM, Rev. A. John. “
HAMILTON, Rev. W. Iowa and Sac Mission. Withdraw in 1846 because of health. Had translated portions of Scripture into Iowa, Otoe and Missouri languages. Returned to field in 1847.
DEED, Mr. D.E. Teacher among Omaha & Otoe Indians. Arrived in 1848.
BLOOHM, Teacher in “ . Dismissed in good standing in 1848.
IRVIN, Mr. S.M. Iowan and Sac Mission, teacher.
IRVIN, Mr. F. , farmer. Dismissed in 1847.
COON, Rev. & Mrs. S.M. “ . Dismissed in 1846.
ALLAM, Rev. & Mrs. James L. Joined Chickasaw Mission in 1850.
1843, GA Minutes, p. 341ff. 1844 GA Minutes, 431ff. 1845 GA Minutes, Appendix, 67ff. 1846 GA Minutes, 360ff. 1847 GA Minutes, p. 540ff. 1848 GA Minutes, Appendix p. 6ff. 1850 GA Minute, 3f.

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